Applying a gender impact assessment to a mental health disaster recovery program

Radhika and her team are involved in developing a disaster recovery framework for a rural mental health service, to assist local families and community members with mental health concerns in the aftermath of a natural disaster. As part of this framework, Radhika’s team is focusing on designing mental health programs to support the local community. Both the overarching framework and the program have been allocated a budget, and Radhika and her team must determine how to best use these funds. The team will conduct a gender impact assessment (GIA) to ensure the program meets the needs of women, men and gender diverse people in the community.

Step 1: Define the issues and challenge assumptions

For the first step of the GIA, Radhika and her team must identify the problem the framework and program are trying to solve. To complete this step, they must make sure they apply a gender lens to the program development and consider the different experiences and impacts of a natural disaster for women, men and gender diverse people.

What is the issue the program is trying to address?

Radhika and her team understand the natural disasters experienced in this regional area have impacted the mental health of people in the community. The program aims to address this issue and ensure adequate supports are available to assist recovery following future disasters.

The team plan to provide mental health assessments and facilitate mental health and wellbeing workshops for community members. They also hope the program will strengthen the support networks of community members through social connections and link people in the community to appropriate services in the broader mental health sector.

Challenging assumptions

Initially, Radhika and her team suggest the program should focus on the mental health needs of young people who are experiencing feelings of loss, hopelessness and isolation after disaster. The team believe tailoring the program to support the mental health of young people will be the most efficient and cost-effective way to assist families and community members. When thinking about gendered differences, they assume people of different genders would use this program at the same rate, and that everyone who uses it will have the same needs.

Completing the gender impact assessment provides an opportunity to think critically about how and why different people will use the program. Applying a gender lens, the team broadens the issues to consider:

  • What are the gendered differences in how people experience disasters?
  • How do needs and priorities regarding disaster recovery differ according to gender?
  • How do other intersecting factors, such as age, disability, ethnicity and sexuality, influence mental health needs and priorities?

Applying a gender lens empowers the group to consider how people of different genders, and with other intersecting attributes, may influence how people experience and recover from disasters.

Broadening the issues with a gendered lens

After brainstorming gendered and intersectional differences amongst themselves, the team identify additional issues to consider:

  • Negative experiences following disasters may affect all members of the community and harm may be compounded by an individual’s gender and other intersectional factors
  • Women are at heightened risk during and after disasters, as they are disproportionately affected by family violence and traditionally have more caring responsibilities
  • Men’s risk of experiencing mental health issues compound with harmful social expectations of masculinity, and stigma may prevent them from seeking help
  • Gender diverse people are often not considered in disaster recovery frameworks, and providing services within a binary system may cause further harm
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may encounter barriers accessing government care systems due to fear of racism, disrespect, judgement, and a historical pattern of negative government interventions
  • Older people, people with disability and people living alone are at risk of experiencing mental health issues due to feelings of loneliness and isolation stemming from disasters limiting access to support networks.
  • People of all genders from culturally diverse backgrounds are at a greater risk due to stigma around mental health issues, and they may face potential barriers in using culturally safe services and support.
  • The program should be tailored to individuals rather than family units, as gendered differences may cause individuals within a family to experience and recover from disaster in different ways,
  • As not everyone has a family, tailoring the program for families could be exclusionary to members of the community and cause further harm.

At this point, Radhika and her team have found some great starting points to conduct further research. They acknowledge they will need to learn more to ensure their program is accessible and beneficial to more members of the community, and that further research and consultation may reveal more issues to consider and address. This is why collecting data as part of step two is integral to challenging the assumptions identified in step one – it ensures the options and proposed recommendations inform a framework that is designed to appropriately meet the needs of people of different genders and intersectional experiences.

Step 2: Collecting evidence – data, research and consultation

Radhika and her team thoughtfully identified areas to start their thinking, but they recognise the limitations of their current knowledge. So, they consider what they can find out from internal data, desktop research, and consultation and meaningful stakeholder engagement.

To guide their investigation, they consider:

  • Who is likely to be affected?
  • What are the lived experiences of these diverse groups?
  • What different impacts may be likely for different people?

By gathering as much information from as many sources as possible, Radhika and her team can understand the context of their program – that is, why people of different genders need to use their program, and how it will affect them. This will ensure their program is responsive, inclusive, and effective.

Using internal data

To start their search, Radhika and her team consider the internal information, including gender-disaggregated data, that has already been collected and is available to their organisation.

The team look for a variety of data which could help their gender impact assessment, including:

  • Previous commissioned research and policy reports;
  • Project and program evaluation reports;
  • Enquiries and complaints handling data;
  • Survey data, census findings
  • Customer and end-user data including social media data;
  • Consultation and policy submissions.

Reviewing the information already available to their organisation provides the team with a greater understanding of initiatives their company has undertaken, and helps them identify areas where they can promote gender equality and address gender inequality. This gives them a greater understanding of where it would be most beneficial to focus their desktop research and stakeholder engagement.

Data, statistics and desktop research

To begin their search for external data, Radhika and her team turn to the website for the Commission for Gender Equality in the Public Sector (CGEPS), where data sources for conducting a gender impact assessment have been compiled. This page provides a list of statistics and data sources from a range of areas to help the team think critically about the different experiences of women, men, and gender diverse people.

When looking at these statistics, Radhika and her team consider how a person’s circumstances and intersecting factors can influence how people of different genders experience, and recover from, disasters. Conducting this research helps the team determine what is relevant to their assessment and program.

With this in mind, Radhika and her team expand their search to other data sets. They consult the following publicly available sources:

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)
  • HILDA Survey Data
  • Australian and Torres Strait Islander Data Archive (ATSIDA)
  • World Bank Open Data
  • World Health Organisation (WHO) – Open data repository

They also turn to verified websites, open-source journal articles and research papers, and any other services they have access to (such as the Victorian Government Library Service).

Conducting this research allowed Radhika to find more information on who may be affected, the experiences of the diverse groups, and how they may be impacted differently by both disasters and the recovery framework.

For more information on the importance of desktop research, please see this Victorian Government resource.

Stakeholder engagement

While Radhika and her team have found some excellent information through their research, they recognise the value in discussing experiences with the groups they are trying to support and consider.

The team’s findings from ‘Step 1: Identify Issues’, combined with their desktop research, have helped them identify several local support services, networks, and community groups for consultation. From this, Radhika and her team organise meetings with the following organisations:

  • Local women’s shelters
  • Groups focusing on men’s mental health
  • LGBTIQ+ groups
  • Local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community groups and Elders
  • Community groups for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) people and those of non-English speaking backgrounds
  • Disability services
  • Older people’s advocacy groups
  • Parent’s groups
  • Youth services
  • Groups dedicated to supporting mental health for all genders
  • Groups dedicated to supporting those affected by poverty and rough sleeping

These groups provide valuable insight to the experiences of people of all genders, as well as the way intersectional factors can compound with gender to cause further harm.

Evidence collected by Radhika and her team

The evidence collected by Radhika and her team using a range of data sources is highly valuable. While many of their findings supported their initial assumptions, the team found that some evidence challenged their first thoughts and revealed new ideas to explore. Overall, the exercise highlighted areas which they may have overlooked had they not completed this research as part of the gender impact assessment. The team found some key insights into the different experiences of people of different genders and other intersecting factors.

The team were careful to document the discussion outcomes of their consultations so that these could be used to inform other programs, policies, and services their organisation is developing or reviewing.

Step 3: Evaluate options

After gathering evidence to better understand the context surrounding their program, Radhika and her team begin writing their options analysis.

To consider how their program will affect people of different genders, they compare their initial program plan, which focused on the mental health of young people, with a more inclusive program option conscious of gendered experiences.

Step 4: Finalise recommendations

Radhika must now make final recommendations in the development of the program, based on the options analysis completed in Step 3.

Radhika recommends that the organisation proceed with Option 2. This option will facilitate the development of a disaster recovery program that provides mental health support while also considering gendered differences and intersectionality.

As part of this recommendation, she proposes that the program provides on-site mental health assessments and workshops at a variety of locations, including local women’s groups, aged care facilities, youth centres and other community hubs. The staff and volunteer interpreters would be diverse and experienced in cultural safety, running workshops and mental health screenings which will also be available online. Radhika also recommends the program utilises an online presence by establishing online forums and networks, and marketing materials will be developed to address and lessen stigma and perceived safety concerns.

Radhika’s final recommendation also includes the gendered benefits and risks of the program, as outlined within the options analysis.

It is important that when Radhika and her team undertake their options analysis and make a final recommendation, they do not default to the least costly option, or the option which benefits the most people. Doing so may exclude the most marginalised members of the community. 

However, Radhika successfully assessed how she could best use the budget to address the problem and support gender equality, using data and research to illustrate the weight of these gendered issues and support her solutions. By demonstrating this approach, Radhika and her team persuaded their leadership team that the recommended option was a cost-effective solution.

Preparing for progress reporting to the Commission

Now that Radhika and her team have completed their gender impact assessment, they consider how to report their progress to the Commission for Gender Equality in the Public Sector per their obligations under the Gender Equality Act 2020.

The progress report is due every two years. They still have time before it’s due, but Radhika understands the benefits of recording this information as early as possible. This will save Radhika and others in her organisation time and effort as the reporting deadline approaches.

The team knows that for the GIA component of the progress report they will need to:

  • Identify all policies, programs and services that were subject to a gender impact assessment
  • Report on the actions taken as a result of the gender impact assessment

Discussing with their manager, the team learn their organisation maintains an internal register of completed gender impact assessments that will capture information for when they submit their progress report. They add information to this register about their recently conducted gender impact assessment.